ZNANIJA

     

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Alongside putting up the Christmas decorations (usually far too early), finding a Christmas tree, preparing for carol services và planning where khổng lồ buy your turkey, one of the annual routines at Christmas is my posting the argument that Jesus was not born in a stable.

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I will continue to lớn pursue this annual tradition, since it is actually rather important. It demonstrates how much we often read Scripture through the lens of our own assumptions, culture, and traditions, và how hard it can be to read well-known texts carefully, attending to lớn what they actually say. It also highlights the nguồn of traditions, & how resistant they are to change. And, specifically, the belief that Jesus was lonely và dejected, cast out amongst the animals & sidelined at his birth, actually seriously distorts the meaning of the birth narratives, in which (contrary lớn this tradition) Jesus & his birth are a powerfully disruptive force, bursting in on the middle of ordinary life & offering the possibility of its transformation.

That message is particularly important this year, as we continue to lớn face restrictions arising from the Covid-19 pandemic. We cannot easily continue our normal routines & traditions, especially leaving our homes in order lớn travel khổng lồ a cold and drafty building lớn make the once-a-year pilgrimage to a place of devotion, as so many vì (and mostly vị not return in the New Year). Instead, if Jesus comes khổng lồ us, rather than us coming to him, if he visits in our very homes và comes as a surprising, disruptive, but ultimately welcome presence, one who will turn our world upside-down và change it forever, then that makes all the difference.

So here we go.

I am sorry to lớn spoil your preparations for Christmas before the Christmas lights have even gone up—though perhaps it is better to vị this now than the week before Christmas, when everything has been carefully prepared. But Jesus wasn’t born in a stable, and, curiously, the New Testament hardly even hints that this might have been the case.

So where has the idea come from? I would track the source lớn three things: traditional elaboration; issues of grammar & meaning; & ignorance of first-century Palestinian culture.

The traditional elaboration has come about from reading the story through a ‘messianic’ understanding of Is 1.3:

The ox knows its master, the donkey its owner’s manger, but Israel does not know, my people vị not understand.

The mention of a ‘manger’ in Luke’s nativity story, suggesting animals, led mediaeval illustrators to lớn depict the ox & the ass recognising the baby Jesus, so the natural setting was a stable—after all, isn’t that where animals are kept? (Answer: not necessarily!)

The issue of grammar and meaning, and perhaps the heart of the matter, is the translation of the Greek word kataluma in Luke 2.7. Older versions translate this as ‘inn’:

And she brought forth her firstborn son, và wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (AV).

There is some reason for doing this; the word is used in the Greek Old Testament (the Septuagint, LXX) to translate a term for a public place of hospitality (eg in Ex 4.24 và 1 Samuel 9.22). & the etymology of the word is quite general. It comes from kataluo meaning khổng lồ unloose or untie, that is, to lớn unsaddle one’s horses và untie one’s pack. But some fairly decisive evidence in the opposite direction comes from its use elsewhere. It is the term for the private ‘upper’ room where Jesus and the disciples eat the ‘last supper’ (Mark 14.14 và Luke 22.11; Matthew does not mention the room). This is clearly a reception room in a private home. & when Luke does mention an ‘inn’, in the parable of the man who fell among thieves (Luke 10.34), he uses the more general term pandocheion, meaning a place in which all (travellers) are received, a caravanserai.

The difference is made clear in this pair of definitions:

Kataluma (Gr.) – “the spare or upper room in a private house or in a village <…> where travelers received hospitality and where no payment was expected” (ISBE 2004). A private lodging which is distinct from that in a public inn, i.e. Caravanserai, or khan.

Pandocheionpandokeionpandokian (Gr.) – (i) In 5th C. BC Greece an inn used for the shelter of strangers (pandokian=’all receiving’). The pandokeion had a common refectory & dormitory, with no separate rooms allotted lớn individual travelers (Firebaugh 1928).

The third issue relates lớn our understanding, or rather ignorance, of (you guessed it) the historical & social context of the story. In the first place, it would be unthinkable that Joseph, returning to his place of ancestral origins, would not have been received by family members, even if they were not close relatives. Kenneth Bailey, who is renowned for his studies of first-century Palestinian culture, comments:

Even if he has never been there before he can appear suddenly at the trang chủ of a distant cousin, recite his genealogy, & he is among friends. Joseph had only to lớn say, “I am Joseph, son of Jacob, son of Matthan, son of Eleazar, the son of Eliud,” và the immediate response must have been, “You are welcome. What can we vì chưng for you?” If Joseph did have some thành viên of the extended family resident in the village, he was honor-bound khổng lồ seek them out. Furthermore, if he did not have family or friends in the village, as a member of the famous house of David, for the “sake of David,” he would still be welcomed into almost any village home.

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Moreover, the actual design of Palestinian homes (even to the present day) makes sense of the whole story. As Bailey explores in his Jesus Through Middle-Eastern Eyes, most families would live in a single-room house, with a lower compartment for animals to lớn be brought in at night, và either a room at the back for visitors, or space on the roof. The family living area would usually have hollows in the ground, filled with hay, in the living area, where the animals would feed.

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This kind of one-room living with animals in the house at night is evident in a couple of places in the gospels. In Matt 5.15, Jesus comments:

Neither vì chưng people light a lamp và put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light lớn everyone in the house.

This makes no sense unless everyone lives in the one room! và in Luke’s tài khoản of Jesus healing a woman on the sabbath (Luke 13.10–17), Jesus comments:

Doesn’t each of you on the Sabbath untie your ox or donkey from the manger and lead it out to give it water?

Interestingly, none of Jesus’ critics respond, ‘No I don’t cảm biến animals on the Sabbath’ because they all would have had lớn lead their animals from the house. In fact, one late manuscript variant reads ‘lead it out from the house and give it water.’

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What, then, does it mean for the kataluma to have ‘no space’? It means that many, like Joseph và Mary, have travelled to Bethlehem, và the family guest room is already full, probably with other relatives who arrived earlier. So Joseph & Mary must stay with the family itself, in the main room of the house, and there Mary gives birth. The most natural place to lớn lay the baby is in the hay-filled depressions at the lower end of the house where the animals are fed. The idea that they were in a stable, away from others, alone and outcast, is grammatically & culturally implausible. In fact, it is hard lớn be alone at all in such contexts. Bailey amusingly cites an early researcher:

Anyone who has lodged with Palestinian peasants knows that notwithstanding their hospitality the lack of privacy is unspeakably painful. One cannot have a room to oneself, & one is never alone by day or by night. I myself often fled into the open country simply in order lớn be able to lớn think

In the Christmas story, Jesus is not sad và lonely, some distance away in the stable, needing our sympathy.

Rather, he is in the midst of the family, và all the visiting relations, right in the thick of it & demanding our attention.

This should fundamentally change our approach to lớn enacting and preaching on the nativity.

But one last question remains. This, informed & persuasive, understanding of the story has been around, even in Western scholarship, for a long, long time. Bailey cites William Thomson, a Presbyterian missionary lớn Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, who wrote in 1857:

It is my impression that the birth actually took place in an ordinary house of some common peasant, and that the baby was laid in one of the mangers, such as are still found in the dwellings of farmers in this region.

And Bailey notes that Alfred Plummer, in his influential ICC commentary, originally published in the late nineteenth century, agreed with this. So why has the wrong, traditional interpretation persisted for so long?

I think there are two main causes. In the first place, we find it very difficult lớn read the story in its own cultural terms, & constantly impose our own assumptions about life. Where bởi vì you keep animals? Well, if you live in the West, especially in an urban context, away from the family of course! So that is where Jesus must have been—despite the experience of many who live in rural settings. I remembering noticing the place for cattle underneath the family trang chủ in houses in Switzerland.

Secondly, it is easy lớn underestimate how powerful a hold tradition has on our reading of Scripture. Dick France explores this issue alongside other aspects of preaching on the infancy narratives in in his excellent chapter in We Proclaim the Word of Life. He relates his own experience of the effect of this:

o advocate this understanding is lớn pull the rug from under not only many familiar carols (‘a lowly cattle shed’; ‘a draughty stable with an mở cửa door’) but also a favourite theme of Christmas preachers: the ostracism of the Son of God from human society, Jesus the refugee. This is subversive stuff. When I first started advocating Bailey’s interpretation, it was picked up by a Sunday newspaper và then reported in various radio programmes as a typical example of theological wrecking, on a par with that then notorious debunking of the actuality of the resurrection by the Bishop of Durham!

So is it worth challenging people’s assumptions? Yes, it is, if you think that what people need lớn hear is the actual story of Scripture, rather than the tradition of a children’s play. France continues:

The problem with the stable is that it distances Jesus from the rest of us. It puts even his birth in a chất lượng setting, in some ways as remote from life as if he had been born in Caesar’s Palace. But the message of the incarnation is that Jesus is one of us. He came to lớn be what we are, & it fits well with that theology that his birth in fact took place in a normal, crowded, warm, welcoming Palestinian home, just like many another Jewish boy of his time.

And who knows? People might even start asking questions about how we read the Bible và understand it for ourselves!

If you would lượt thích to see how it might be possible lớn re-write the Christmas story for all ages in a way which is faithful to lớn this, see this excellent example from Stephen Kuhrt.

I preached on this theme at a Carol Service, and you can read my sermon here.

Additional note

I am grateful to Mark Goodacre for drawing my attention lớn an excellent paper on this by Stephen Carlson, one of his colleagues at Duke. The paper was published in NTS in 2010, but is available on Carlson’s blog for free. Carlson presses the argument even further by arguing three points:

1. He looks widely at the use of kataluma and in particular notes that in the Septuagint (LXX, the Greek translation of the OT from Hebrew in the second century BC) it translates a wide variety of Hebrew terms for ‘places to stay.’ He thus goes further than Bailey, agreeing that it does not mean inn, but instead that it refers lớn any place that was used as lodgings.

2. He looks in detail at the phrase often translated ‘there was no room for them in the kataluma‘ và argues that the Greek phrase ouch en autois topos does not mean ‘there was no room for them’ but ‘they had no room.’ In other words, he thinks that they did stay in the kataluma, but that it was not big enough for Mary khổng lồ give birth khổng lồ Jesus in, so she moved khổng lồ the main room for the birth, assisted by relatives.

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3. He believes that Bethlehem was not Joseph’s ancestral home, but his actual family home, for two reasons. Firstly, we have no record of any Roman census requiring people return to their ancestral home. Secondly, he argues that the phrase in Luke 2.39 ‘to a town of their own, Nazareth’ doesn’t imply that they were returning to their home town, but that they then made this their home. We already know this is Mary’s home town, and it would be usual for the woman lớn travel to lớn the man’s trang chủ town (Joseph’s Bethlehem) khổng lồ complete the betrothal ceremonies. After Jesus is born, they then return together to lớn set up home near Mary’s family.

The kataluma was therefore in all likelihood the extra accommodation, possibly just a single room, perhaps built on the roof of Joseph’s family’s home for the new couple. Having read this, I realised that I had stayed in just such a roof-room, jerry-built on the roof of a hotel in the Old thành phố of Jerusalem, in the lee of the Jaffa Gate, in 1981. It was small, and there was certainly no room khổng lồ give birth in it!

(You can stay there too, by booking here. The site includes the view we had from the roof!)