C6H6 + Cl2 = C6H5Cl + Hcl

     

Benzene usually shows only thesubstitution electrophilic reactions.But benzene involves in a differentand difficult reaction with chlorine. It is called additive reaction and it forms Benzene Hexachloride. Products, mechanism, uses of reaction andproducts are discussed in this tutorial.

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Preparation of Benzene Hexachloride from benzene and chlorine under sun rays or UV rays

Benzene with chlorine can"t react as a substitutional reaction without halogen carriers. But they are done another reaction with sun rays orUV rays it"s called additive reaction. But this reaction is difficult lớn happen. The reason is the extra energy is required to lớn break the displacedπ electron cloud.

Properties of benzene hexachloride

Uses of benzene hexachloride

Benzene hexachloride is especially used in agriculture andthe pharmaceutical industry. It used as insecticides, pesticides, seed treatmentsin forestry & for head lice và used for the treatment of the skull.

Health concern about the benzene hexachloride

BHC (benzene hexachloride) is very acutely toxic. Therefore, a higher amount benzene hexachloride can damage the nervous system.Also, it"s production process is very harmful khổng lồ the environment. Benzene hexachloride can affect headache, dizziness, convulsions, braindevelopment of the children"s and change thyroid hormone levels. Sometimes benzene hexachloride is dangerous for life and health.benzene hexachloride pollutes the environment very badly.

Preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and chlorine with catalyst

Benzene with chlorine is not a spontaneous reaction without sunrays. This is because the non-polar molecule has no electron deficient areasand cannot function directly as an electrophile. But when anhydrous AlCl3, anhydrous FeCl3 or sắt powder is used asthe catalyst, it reacts with benzene & chlorine to form chlorobenzene.

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Mechanism of the reaction

When the Cl2 molecule comes near khổng lồ the benzene ring, the electrons in the Cl2 molecule are repelled by theelectrons in the benzene ring. As a result of this, the Cl2 molecule is going to be slightly polarized. This polarizedCl2 reacts with AlCl3 và forms a positive chlorine ion which acts as an electrophile.

This electrophile attacks khổng lồ the electrons of the benzene ring & forms a C-Cl bond which leads to lớn a highly unstable intermediate carbocation.This unstable carbocation reacts with the earlier formed tetra chloroaluminate (III) ion and gives chlorobenzene at the end. Here, the mechanismused for the preparation of chlorobenzene is an electrophilic substitution.


Properties of chlorobenzene

Uses of Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene is most used as an intermediate in the production of herbicides, Dyestuffs and rubber. Chlorobenzene is the high-boiling solventfor the production of paint removers, paints, drugs, adhesives, polishers and dyes. Also, chlorobenzene is used for making the polyurethaneinsulation via the production of diisocyanate.

Chlorobenzene with environment

This gets evaporates when exposing khổng lồ air and dissolves slightly when mixing with water. When chlorobenzene is in the air it breaks into otherchemical compounds. As chlorobenzene is a liquid, it doesn"t bind with the soil. So, it flows into the underground water. But plants và animalsdo not like to store chlorobenzene.

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Chlorobenzene with health

The exposing khổng lồ a high concentration of chlorobenzene will cause sleepiness, headaches, vomit, loss of sensation of parts of the body, feeling ofdisgust và etc. Also, this will affect the malfunction of parts of the nervous system. However, this is a common response when exposing to differentkinds of chemicals for a long time.When considering the effect on animals, it specially influences the brain, liver & kidneys. The chemical can cause severe injury khổng lồ the liver andkidneys. Researchers had found that chlorobenzene doesn"t affect the reproduction or cause birth defects.


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